Bluntly stated: unsettled historical wrongs, missing means to redress of current grievances and the deliberate and systematic closing of opportunities to equality and to personal betterment, remain substantial causes of extremism in the east in western societies.
Two violent attacks in Egypt upon Coptic churches on Palm Sunday, are indicative of still held historical grudges that have become intertwined with government actions in recent years. Sunday's Egyptian tragedies will not be the last to occur because there are many unsettled issues remaining from the banning of the Muslim Brotherhood, to the ousting of the democratically elected Mohamed Morsi and to the mass jailing of thousands of dissenters and protesters.
Extremist violence from Syria to Iraq to Libya, to Turkey and beyond are all also rooted in historical events and the lack of redress for many people and sects with arguable cases. Similar conditions exist in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, Ethiopia, elsewhere across Africa and into Myanmar, Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, India, Russia, the former Asian soviet states and in other places of Asia.
Moreover, extremist acts of violence that have targeted France, Germany, Sweden, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and elsewhere across Europe that have sent influencing radicalization to North America, are all connected to the said historical wrongs, missing means to redress and the denial of opportunities that are prevalent in the source-nations.
To continue all efforts to diffuse radicalization and to combat extremism, the military option should never become the sole means. Instead, atonement, development, opportunity, cooperation, respect and empathy, must all be encouraged.